Managing data deletion, destruction and anonymisation

How to keep what you need and get rid of what you don't

Clearing out personal data your business no longer needs is a really simple concept, but in practice it can be rather tricky to achieve! It throws up key considerations such as whether to anonymise or how to make sure its deleted or securely destroyed. Let’s take a look at the key considerations and how to implement a robust plan.

Data retention requirements and risks

Data protection law stipulates organisations must only keep personal data as long as necessary and only for the purposes they have specified. There are risks associated with both keeping personal data too long, or not keeping it long enough. These risks include, but are not limited to:

  • causing the impact of a personal data breach to be significantly worse – i.e. it involves personal data which an organisation has no justification for keeping. Regulatory enforcement action could be more severe and the damage to an organisation’s reputation worse This also raises the risk of class actions or individual compensation claims.
  • falling foul of relevant laws by failing to keep records for legally-defined periods.
  • an inability to respond to complaints, litigation or regulatory enforcement for failing to keep data necessary to meet contractual or commercial terms.

Data retention policy and schedule

To manage this legal obligation successfully, you’ll need to start with an up-to-date data retention policy and schedule. These should clearly identify which types of personal data your business processes, for what purposes, how long each should typically be kept and under what circumstances you might need to hold it for longer.

If your data retention policy or schedule is lacking, first focus on making sure these are brought up to scratch. Our Data Retention Data Retention Guidance has some useful templates.

5 Key steps when the retention period is reached

When an agreed retention period is reach (as per your retention schedule), we’d recommend taking the following steps:

  1. Identify the relevant records which have reached their retention period
  2. Notify the relevant business owner to confirm the data is no longer needed
  3. Consider any changes in circumstances which may require longer retention of the data
  4. Make a decision on what happens to the data
  5. Document the decision and keep evidence of the action

Making the right decision when the retention period is reached

There are different approaches an organisation can take when the data retention period is reached, such as:

  • Delete it – usually the default option
  • Anonymise it
  • Securely destroy it – for physical records, such as HR files

Deletion of records might seem the obvious choice, and it’s often the best one too, but take care how you delete data. Sometimes deleting whole records can affect key processes on your systems such as reporting, algorithms and other programs. Check with your IT colleagues first.


Most organisations want to extract increasing information and value from their digital assets. In some situations, it can be helpful to remove any personal identifiers so you can keep the data that remains after the retention period has been reached. For example,

  • You might want to continue to provide management information or historical analysis, which you can do an anonymised form. This is quite common
  • If you have data of historic marketing campaign responders, you may wish to keep certain non-personal campaign data in an anonymised form for reporting or analytical purposes, such as response volumes by segment, phasing of responses, and so on
  • If you hold records of job applicants you may wish to keep certain demographics (such as gender or diversity information) in an anonymised form. This might support your equal opportunities endeavours

To be clear, anonymisation is the process of removing ALL information which could be used to identify a living person, so the data that remains can no longer be attributed back to any unique individuals.

Once these personal identifiers are deleted, data protection laws do not apply to the anonymised information that remains, so you may continue to hold it. But you have to make sure it is truly anonymised.

The ICO stresses you should be careful when attempting to anonymise information. For the information to be truly anonymised, you must not be able to re-identify individuals.  If at any point reasonably available means could be used to re-identify the individuals, the data will not have been effectively anonymised, but will have merely been pseudonymised. This means it should still be treated as personal data.

Whilst pseudonymising data does reduce the risks to data subjects, in the context of retention, it is not sufficient for personal data you longer need to keep.

How to manage deletion

There are software methods of deleting data, which may involve removing whole records from a dataset or overwriting them. For example, using of zeros and ones to overwrite the personal identifiers in the data.

Once the personal identifiers are overwritten, that data will be rendered unrecoverable, and therefore it’s no longer classed as personal data.

This deletion process should include backup copies of data. Whilst personal data may be instantly deleted from live systems, personal data may still remain within the backup environment, until it is overwritten.

If the backup data cannot be immediately overwritten it must be put ‘beyond use’, i.e. you must make sure the data is not used for any other purpose and is simply held on your systems until it’s replaced, in line with an established schedule.

Examples of where data may be put ‘beyond use’ are:

  • When information should have been deleted but has not yet been overwritten
  • Where information should have been deleted but it is not possible to delete this information without also deleting other information held in the same batch

The ICO (for example) will be satisfied that information is ‘beyond use’ if the data controller:

  • is not able, or will not attempt, to use the personal data to inform any decision about any individual or in a way that affects them;
  • does not give any other organisation access to the personal data;
  • has in place appropriate technical and organisational security; and
  • commits to permanently deleting the information if, or when, this becomes possible.

Destruction of physical records

Destruction is the final action for about 95% of most organisations’ physical records. Physical destruction may include shredding, pulping or burning paper records.

Destruction is likely to be the best course of action for physical records when the organisation no longer needs to keep the data, and when it does not need to hold data in an anonymised format.

Controllers are accountable for the way personal data is processed and consequently, the disposal decision should be documented in a disposal schedule.

Many organisations use other organisations to manage their disposal or destruction of physical records. There are benefits of using third parties, such as reducing in-house storage costs.

Remember, third parties providing this kind of service will be regarded as a data processor, therefore you’ll need to make sure an appropriate contract is in place which includes the usual data protection clauses.

Destruction may be carried out remotely following an agreed process. For instance, a processor might provide regular notifications of batches due to be destroyed in line with documented retention periods.

Don’t forget unstructured data!

Retention periods will also apply to unstructured data which contains personal identifiers. The most common being electronic communications records such emails, instant messages, call recordings and so on.

As you can imagine, unstructured data records present some real challenges. You’ll need to be able to review the records to find any personal data stored there, so it can be deleted in line with your retention schedules, or for an erasure request.

Depending on the size of your organisation, you may need to use specialist software tools to perform content analysis of unstructured data.

In summary, whilst data retention as a concept appears straightforward, it does require some planning, clearly assigned responsibilities for implementing retention periods, and the technical means to do so effectively.

The three foundations of good data governance

January 2024

People, processes and technologies

Creating a clear data governance strategy is crucial to making sure data is handled in line with your organisation’s aims and industry best practice.

Data governance is often thought of as the management process by which an organisation protects its data assets and ensures compliance with data laws, such as GDPR. But it’s far broader than compliance. It’s a holistic approach to data and should have people at its very heart. People with defined roles, responsibilities, processes and technologies which help them make sure data (not just personal data) is properly looked after and wisely used throughout its lifecycle.

How sophisticated your organisation’s approach needs to be will depend on the nature and size of your business, the sensitivity of the data you hold, the relationships you have with business partners, and customer or client expectations.

Benefits of good data governance

There are many benefits this activity can bring, including:

  • Minimising risks to the business, your employees, customers and suppliers
  • Giving your people clarity around expected behaviours and best practices
  • Embedding compliance requirements

A strong data governance approach can also help an organisation to make the most of their data assets, improve customer experience and benefits, and leverage competitive advantage.

Data governance – where to start?

There are three foundational elements which underpin successful data governance – People, Processes and Technologies.

Data governance people processes technologies


Engaging with stakeholders across the organisation to establish and embed key roles and responsibilities for data governance.

Many organisations look to establish a ‘Data Ownership Model’ which recognises data governance is an organisational responsibility which requires close collaboration across different roles and levels, including the delegation of specific responsibilities for data activities.

Here’s some examples of roles you may wish to consider:

  • Data strategy lead – such as Chief Data Officer / Chief Digital Officer
  • Data protection lead – such as Data Protection Officer (DPO), if you have one
  • Information security lead – such as Chief Information Security Officer (CISO) or Chief Technology Officer
  • Information asset owners (or data owners) – leaders of business functions / teams which collect and/or use personal data for particular purposes. Such as HR, Marketing & Sales, Finance, Operations, and so on.
  • Data specialists – heavy users of complex datasets, such as data analysts and data scientists.
  • System owners – the people who manage the key systems which hold personal data, such as IT managers.


Think about all the processes, policies, operating procedures and specialist training provided to guide your employees and contractors to enable them to handle data in line with your business expectations – as well to comply with the law. For example:

Without these in place and regularly updated, your people can’t possibly act in the ways you want and expect them to.

In my experience, success comes from keeping these items concise, and as relevant and engaging as possible. They can easily be forgotten or put in the ‘maybe later’ pile…  a little time and effort can really pay dividends!


The technologies which underpin all data activities across the data lifecycle. For example, your HR, marketing & CRM, accounting and other operational systems you use regularly. Data governance requires those responsible for adopting technologies to ensure appropriate standards and procedures are in place which ensure appropriate:

  • Accessibility and availability standards
  • Data accuracy, integrity and quality management
  • Privacy and security

Looking at privacy technology in particular, the solutions available have really progressed in recent years in terms of both their capability and ease of use. Giving DPOs and others with an interest in data protection clear visibility of where the risks lie, help to prioritise them and pointers to relevant solutions. They can also help provide clear visibility and oversight to the senior leadership team.

The ‘Accountability Principle’

Data governance goes hand in hand with accountability – one of the core principles under GDPR. This requires organisations to be ready to demonstrate the measures and controls they have to protect personal data and in particular, show HOW they comply with the other data protection principles.

Appropriate measures, controls and records need to be in place to evidence accountability. For example, a Supervisory Authority (such as the ICO) may expect organisations to have:

  • Data protection programme, with clear data ownership & governance and regular reporting up to business leaders
  • Training and policies to guide staff
  • Records of data mapping exercises and processing reviews, such as an Information Asset Register and Record of Processing Activities
  • Risk assessments, such as Data Protection Impact Assessments and Legitimate Interests Assessments
  • Procedures for handling of individual privacy rights and data breaches
  • Contracts in place between organisations which include the relevant data protection clauses, including arrangement for restricted international data transfers
  • Data sharing agreements

Ready to get started?

If you’re keen to reap the benefits of improved compliance and reduced risk to the business, the first and crucial step is getting buy-in from senior leadership and a commitment from key stakeholders, so I’d suggest you kick-off by seeking their support.

Data Protection Policies – what do businesses need?

September 2023

Under EU and UK data protection law businesses need to make sure they have ‘appropriate technical and organisational measures’ in place to protect personal data. Organisational measures include making sure staff receive adequate data protection training and guidance about how they should handle personal data.

In my experience, people are keen to ‘do the right thing’ with personal data, but are sometimes unsure how to go about it.

This is where well-crafted policies can really help, sitting alongside and integrated with employee training. Unfortunately people often have a negative view of policies. Long-winded policies, full of impenetrable jargon which regurgitates the law can turn people off.

A vanilla one-size fits all approach has little value… but there’s a much better way. A well-written, easy-to-read, concise policy can communicate ‘what good looks like’ for your business and explain how your people should behave to deliver good practice.

Yes, you absolutely need to take into account what the law says. A policy should identify key risk areas, but crucially it should also tell your people how they should act to meet your company standards – which include legal compliance.

Don’t shy away from stressing the benefits for your business of acting responsibly. Focus on the needs of your business sector and the unique nature of your businesses processing.

Make policies relevant to your workforce and how your business operates. Even better if you can, tie-in the launch of improved data policies with data protection training, which shares the main themes from the policies, this can really bring them to life , improve awareness and reinforce positive behaviours.

What data protection related policies are needed?

First decide which policies you actually need and how they should fit together. My favoured approach is to have just two ‘parent’ data policies, a Data Protection Policy and an Information Security Policy, then link out to ‘child’ policies or procedures which sit below them.

You might consider a third parent policy, such as Acceptable Use, but personally I prefer information about acceptable use to be included within the Data Protection and Information Security policies, so people don’t have to search around.

Here’s a typical Policy Framework, showing the two ‘parent’ policies and examples of possible ‘child’ policies or procedures below.

The range of policies you’ll need will vary from business to business. A small company, with a handful of employees, processing relatively less sensitive data won’t need a raft of policies.

Many micro or small businesses may just focus on having a Data Protection Policy (which covers the data lifecycle from creation through to retention) and an Information Security Policy. Alongside these you’ll definitely need a clear procedure for handling data breaches and individual privacy rights.

How to write helpful, practical data protection policies

As said, too often policy documents are littered with legalise and jargon. Sometimes it feels like a policy has to be formal and massively detailed. Not true. People shouldn’t need a lot of specialist knowledge to understand your policies, particularly those aimed at ALL staff. Straight-forward instructions are more likely to be read, which means more people are likely to follow them.

Take a look at the way your policies are written. Are they a bit dry? If they could do with freshening up, here are some simple do’s and don’ts to consider:


  • use everyday words in place of jargon
  • explain any necessary terminology in plain English
  • break up blocks of text with headings, lists and tables
  • highlight key messages you want to get across
  • include useful tips
  • give useful examples tailored to your business
  • rope in your Comms or L&D team to help simplify things (or anyone who’s good with words)
  • cut out detail by linking to other related policies, guidelines, procedures
  • ask for feedback – how often do people use them? Do they find them helpful? What would make them better?


  • avoid complex language / legalese
  • avoid ‘insider’ jargon – why say ‘data subject’ if you could say people, individuals, customers, patients etc?
  • avoid cut-and-paste definitions from GDPR text – where you use data protection terms, such as controller, processor, third-party, anonymisation, automated decision-making explain what these mean in layman’s terms
  • Avoid information overload

Of course, balance is important. While overly complex policies will gather dust, we need to include enough useful and important information to get key messages across. We’re not talking about talking down to people or patronising them, either.

Of course, we also need to make sure people are aware of relevant policies and can easily lay their hands on them.

How to communicate data protection policies

I’d recommend you host policies on your Intranet, if you have one, and create them in the form of web pages rather than PDFs. It’s good practice to include hyperlinks to and from topic-specific guidance notes, so people can easily navigate to find more about a specific topic. This helps you to keep the parent policies short and concise – easy to digest.

When you carry out data protection training, remind people where to find related policies. In fact throughout the year use near-misses, news stories and other events to reinforce key messages and point to your policies.

Well-crafted easy to digest data protection related policies will go a long way to guide staff on how you expect them to handle and keep personal data secure in their day-to-day roles. But as always proportionality is key, a smaller business handling fairly insensitive data wouldn’t be expected to have multiple policies.

Data breaches – human or a catalogue of errors?

August 2023

Why systems fail

The recent spate of serious data breaches, not least the awful case involving the Police Service of Northern Ireland (PSNI), left me wondering: who’s really to blame? We’re used to hearing about human error, but is it too easy to point the finger?

Is it really the fault of the person who pressed the send button? An old adage comes to mind, ‘success has a thousand fathers, failure is an orphan.’

Of course, people make mistakes. Training, technology and procedures can easily fail if ignored, either wilfully or otherwise. Yes, people are part of the equation. But that’s what it is. An equation. There are usually other factors at play.

In the PSNI case – one involving safety-critical data – I would argue there’s a strong argument that any system allowing such unredacted material to enter an FOIA environment in the first place is flawed?

Nobody is immune from human error. About nine years ago, on my second day in a new compliance role, I left my rucksack on the train. Doh! Luckily, there was no personal data relating to my new employer inside. I lost my workplace starter pack and had to cancel my debit card. I recall the sinking feeling as my new boss said, ‘well, that’s a bit embarrassing for someone in your job’. It was. But I knew it could have been so much worse.

Approximately 80% of data breaches are classified by the Information Commissioner’s Office as being caused by human error. Common mistakes include:

  • Email containing personal data sent to the wrong recipients
  • Forwarding attachments containing personal data in error
  • Failing to notice hidden tabs or lines in spreadsheets which contain personal data (this is one of the causes cited in the PSNI case)
  • Sensitive mail going to the wrong postal address (yes, a properly old-fashioned dead wood data breach!)

However, sometimes I hear about human error breaches and don’t think ‘how did someone accidently do that?’ Instead, I wonder…

  • Why didn’t anyone spot the inherent risk of having ALL those records in an unprotected spreadsheet in the first place?
  • Why wasn’t there a system in place to prevent people being able to forget to blind copy email recipients?
  • Is anyone reviewing responses to Data Subject Access Requests or FOI requests? What level of supervision / QA exists in that organisation?
  • Why is it acceptable for someone to take confidential papers out of their office?

I could go on.

Technical and Organisational Measures (TOMs)

Rather than human error, should we be blaming a lack of appropriate technical and organisational measures (TOMs) to protect personal data? A fundamental data protection requirement.

We all know robust procedures and security measures can mitigate the risk of human error. A simple example – I know employees who receive an alert if they’re about to send an attachment containing personal data without a password.

Alongside this, data protection training is a must, but it should never be a ‘tick box’ exercise. It shouldn’t be a case of annual online training module completed; no further action required! We need to make sure training is relevant and effective and delivers key learning points and messages. Training should be reinforced with regular awareness campaigns. Using mistakes (big or small) as case studies are a good way to keep people alert to the risks. This is another reason why post-event investigation is so important as a lesson-learning exercise.

Rather than being a liability, if we arm people with enough knowledge they can become our greatest asset in preventing data breaches.

Chatting with my husband about this, he mentioned a boss once asking him to provide some highly sensitive information on a spreadsheet. Despite the seniority and insistence of the individual, my husband refused. He offered an alternative solution, with protecting people’s data at heart. Armed with enough knowledge, he knew what he had been asked to do was foolhardy.

Lessons from previous breaches

It’s too early to call what precisely led to these recent breaches:

  • The Police Service of Northern Ireland releasing a spreadsheet containing the details of 10,000 police officers and other staff public in response to a Freedom of Information Request
  • Norfolk and Suffolk Police accidentally releasing details of victims and witnesses of crime
  • Scottish genealogy website revealing thousands of adopted children’s names.

However, we can learn from previous breaches and the findings of previous ICO investigations.

You may recall the case of Heathrow Airport’s lost unencrypted memory stick. Although ostensibly a case of human error, the ICO established the Airport failed not only ‘to ensure that the personal data held on its network was properly secured’, but also failed to provide sufficient training in relation to data protection and information security. The person blamed for the breach was unaware the memory stick should have been encrypted in the first place.

Then there was the Cabinet Office breach in which people’s home addresses we published publicly in the New Year’s Honours list. The actual person who published the list must’ve had a nightmare, when they realised what had happened. But the ICO findings revealed a new IT system was rushed in and set up incorrectly. The procedure given for people to follow was incorrect. A tight deadline meant short-cuts were taken. The Cabinet Office was found to have been complacent.

The lesson here? Data breaches aren’t always solely the fault of the person pressing the ‘send’ button. Too often,  systems and procedures have already failed. Data protection is a mindset. A culture. Not an add-on. As the PSNI has sadly discovered, in the most awful of circumstances.

The impact breaches can have on employees, customers, victims of crime, patients and so on, can be devastating. Just the knowledge that their data is ‘out there’ can cause distress and worry.

Data protection law doesn’t spell out what businesses must do. To know where data protection risks lie, we need to know what personal data we have across the business and what it’s being used for.  Risks need to be assessed and managed. And the measures put in place need to be proportionate to the risk.

Data Protection Impact Assessments Guide

July 2023

A quick guide to managing DPIAs

This short guide to Data Protection Impact Assessments covers what a DPIA is and when it’s mandatory to conduct one under UK GDPR and EU GDPR. It also includes helpful tips on how to manage the process.

DPIAs not only help to protect people’s data, they also help to protect the business.

Privacy Notices Quick Guide

The right to be informed

All businesses need an external facing Privacy Notice, aka Privacy Policy, if collecting and handling people’s personal information.

Data protection law tells us we must provide people with easily accessible and specific privacy information when we collect their data. This guide sets out the key considerations and core requirements our Privacy Notices.

privacy notice guide from the data protection consultancy DPN - Data Protection Network

Top 10 Data Protection Tips for SMEs

January 2023

Is it onerous for SMEs to become compliant?

One of the stated aims of the UK Government’s Data Protection and Digital Information Bill is to support small businesses and remove unnecessary bureaucracy. 

As context, there are 5.6m businesses in UK of which SMEs (less than 250 employees) represents 99% of the total. According to IAPP research approximately 32,000 organisations in UK have a registered DPO. It’s right, therefore, to focus on SMEs. 

But how onerous is small business data protection now? Arguably, the answer is, not as onerous as you might think. We’ve created a top 10 checklist for start-ups and small businesses to help you decide what you should be concerned with: 

1.     Do I need to worry about data protection regulation? 

Yes. Pretty much any business processing personal data for commercial purposes need to worry about data protection. (It does not apply to purely ‘personal or household activity’). Having said that, the law and regulatory advice focuses on taking a ‘proportionate’ approach. There’s no one size fits all and it will depend on the risk appetite of your organisation. 

2.     Do I need a DPO?

Probably not. If the answer to these three questions is no, you don’t need a DPO…

  • Are you a public authority or body?
  • Do your core business activities require regular and systematic monitoring of individuals on a large scale?
  • Do your core business activities involve processing on a large scale ‘special category data’, or criminal convictions or offences data?

Even if you don’t need a DPO, it’s wise to nominate someone in your organisation as a data protection lead. This does not need to be a full-time role. Alternatively, you can outsource this activity to someone/a company who can provide the support on a part-time basis. 

3.     Do I need a RoPA (Record of Processing Activity)

Maybe. There’s no escaping the fact RoPAs are challenging documents to complete and can absorb a huge amount of time. Companies with more than 250 employees must always keep a RoPA – that’s just under 8,000 businesses in UK.

If you have less than 250 employees, you don’t need a RoPA if the following applies:

  • Processing does not pose a risk to the rights and freedoms of the data subject 
  • No special category data is being processed
  • If the processing is only done occasionally

The debate start when you consider what constitutes a ‘risk to the rights and freedom of the data subject’. It’s worth considering the type of data you handle rather than the volumes to help you decide whether to complete a RoPA. As a start up, you may not need a RoPA as defined in the legislation. However, having a record of what information is processed, for what purpose and under what lawful basis is a good idea even if the ICO RoPA form is not. 

There are changes afoot with regards to the RoPA under UK data reform plans, but a record of your activities may still be necessary, just not as current prescribed.

4.     Do I need to register with ICO?

Almost certainly YES. The ICO asks all businesses that process personal data to pay the Data Protection Fee. This is used to fund the ICO and its activities. This isn’t onerous. In fact, most small businesses will only have to pay £40 (or £35 with a direct debit). And that’s before you’ve considered whether you’re exempt. Not for profit status is a possible example. 

 5.     Do I need a privacy notice (policy)?

Yes. A privacy notice is a foundational piece of your data protection work. Any organisation which processes personal data needs to set out what data they are processing and how they are processing it as well as the data subject’s rights. The ICO’s checklist provides very clear guidance for what must be in a notice and what might be in a notice.

6.     How about a cookie notice?

Yes again. If you have a website, assume you need a cookie notice. Even if all you’re doing is using cookies to manage the performance of your website, a cookie notice is required. This does not need to cost money. You can get free software from the major privacy software providers. They have simple step by step set up guides. There is really no excuse not to have a cookie notice. 

7.     What about accountability?

Yes, but make it proportionate. In a nutshell, accountability means ‘evidencing your activities’. Keep a record of what you do, why you’re doing it and your decision-making. It also means making sure you have appropriate technical and organisational measures in place to protect personal data. Have staff been adequately trained in data protection? Do we have clear guidelines and/or policies to help them? 

8.     What about Individual Rights? 

Yes. Every individual has clear rights and irrespective of the size of the organisation you need to fulfil these requests. 

These rights include right of access, the right to rectification, the right to erasure, the right to restrict processing, the right to data portability, the right to object and the right not to be subject to a decision based solely on automated processing.

Not all of these might apply to a small business but it’s important to decide how to recognise and respond to these requests from individuals. 

9.    Don’t forget information security

Yes. Cyber Essentials was designed for SMEs. Arguably it’s the absolute minimum for any business. It does cost money but not a lot. Gaining the Cyber Essentials certification (if self-certified) costs £300. The five technical controls are: 

  • Boundary firewalls and internet gateways
  • Secure configuration.
  • Access control.
  • Malware protection.
  • Patch management.

10.  What about International Data Transfers? 

Hopefully no! If you and your suppliers are only operating in UK and Europe stop reading now. However, if any data is exported to a third country (such as USA, South Africa or India), there’s no escaping the fact that international data transfers can be painful to work through. 

When EU-US Privacy Shield was invalidated in 2020 this caused significant problems for data transfers between US and EU/UK. At the time, Max Schrems’ advice was to only work with companies based in UK or Europe who are not exporting data to third countries. However, this isn’t always possible – just consider how many people use Google, Microsoft or Mailchimp. 

Many, if not most, businesses will have dealings with these three and the reality is that you must accept they’re not going to change anything for you, or choose not to use them. 


Many small and start-up businesses can get ready relatively quickly. The trick for small business data protection is to review your arrangements on a regular basis and be aware if any more complicated processing emerges. For instance, anything involving automated processing, special category data, AI or children’s data carries significant risk and should be treated with care. 

There’s more helpful information available on the ICO’s Small Business Hub.

Data Protection Basics: The 7 data protection principles

November 2022

Understanding the key principles of data protection

Let’s get back to basics. There are seven core principles which form the foundation of data protection law. Understanding and applying these principles is the cornerstone for good practice and key to complying with UK / EU GDPR.

Here’s our quick guide to the data protection principles.

1. Lawfulness, fairness and transparency

This principle covers 3 key areas.

a) Lawfulness – We must identify an appropriate ‘lawful basis’ for collecting and using personal data. In fact, we need to decide on a lawful basis for each task we use personal data for, and make sure we fulfil the specific conditions for that lawful basis. There are 6 lawful bases to choose from.

We need to take special care and look to meet additional requirements when using what’s termed ‘special category’ data or data which relates to minors or vulnerable people.

We should also be sure not do anything which is likely to contravene any other laws.

b) Fairness – We must only use people’s data only in ways that are fair. Don’t process data in a way which might be unexpected, discriminatory or misleading. This means evaluating any adverse affects on individuals.

c) Transparency – We must be clear, open and honest with people about how we use their personal information. Tell people what we’re going to do with their personal information. Routinely this is achieved by providing relevant privacy information at the point data is collected, and by publishing a complete and up to date privacy notice and making this easy to find. Transparency requirements apply right from the start, when we collect or receive people’s data.

2. Purpose limitation

This is all about only using personal details in the ways we told people they’d be used for. We must be clear about what our purposes for processing are and specify them in the privacy information we provide to individuals.

Sometimes we might want to use personal data for a new purpose. We may have a clear legal obligation to do it, but if not we should check the new purpose is compatible with the original purpose(s) we had for that data. If not, then we may need to secure the individual’s consent before going ahead.

Remember, if we surprise people, they ‘ll be more likely to complain.

3. Data minimisation

We must make sure the personal data we collect and use is:

  • Adequate – necessary for our stated purposes. Only collect the data we really need. Don’t collect and keep certain personal information ‘just in case’ it might be useful in future.
  • Relevant – relevant to that purpose; and
  • Limited to what is necessary – don’t use more data than we need for each specific purpose.

4. Accuracy

We should take ‘all reasonable steps’ to make sure the personal data we gather and hold is accurate, up-to-date and not misleading.

It’s good practice to use data validation tools when data is captured or re-used. For example, validate email addresses are in the right format, or verify postal addresses when these are captured online.

If we identify any of the personal information we hold is incorrect or misleading, we should take steps to correct or delete it promptly.

Data accuracy can decline over time. For example, people change their email address, move house, get married or divorced, their needs and interests change. And of course some people on your database may pass away. So we need to consider ways to keep our data updated and cleansed.

Perhaps find ways to give people the opportunity to check and update their personal details?

5. Storage limitation

Don’t be a hoarder! We must not keep personal data longer than necessary for the purposes we have specified.

Certain records need to be kept for a statutory length of time, such as employment data. But not all data processing has a statutory period. Where the retention period is not set by law, the organisation must set an appropriate data retention period for each purpose, which it can justify.

The ICO would expect us to have a data retention policy in place, with a schedule which states the standard retention period for each processing task. This is key step to making sure you can comply with this principle.

When the data is no longer necessary, we must destroy or anonymise it, unless there’s a compelling reason for us to keep it for longer. For example, when legal hold applies. For more information see our Data Retention Guidance.

6. Security

This is the ‘integrity and confidentiality’ principle of the GDPR – often known as the security principle. This requires organisations to make sure we have appropriate security measures in place to protect the personal data we hold.

UK / EU GDPR talks about ‘appropriate technical and organisational measures’ (known as TOMs). These includes things like physical and technical security measures, conducting information security risk analyses, having information security policies & standards in place to guide our staff.

Our approach to security should be proportionate to the risks involves. The ICO advises us to consider available technology and the costs of implementation when deciding what measures to take.

Some of the basics include transferring data securely, storing it securely, restricting access to only those who need it and authenticating approved data users.

Cyber Essentials or Cyber Plus can be helpful as an assurance framework to carry out a review of your data security arrangements.

Controllers should consider information security standards when appointing and managing relationships with processors, i.e. service providers handling personal data on your behalf to provide their services. Are your processors securely handling their processing of the data you control? Carry out appropriate due diligence to make sure.

7. Accountability

The accountability principle makes organisations responsible for complying with the UK / EU GDPR and says they must be able to evidence how they comply with the above principles.

This requires data governance across the organisation. Think of accountability as a collective responsibility, flowing from the Executive team and down through to the teams that process personal data.

To demonstrate how we comply, we need to have records in place. For many organisations this will include a Record of Processing Activities (RoPA).

The ICO provides a useful ‘Accountability Framework’ we can use to benchmark performance against their expectations.

In summary, identify the lawful bases you’re relying on and be fair and be open about what you do. Minimise the data you collect and make sure it remains accurate over time. Always keep it secure and don’t keep it for longer than you need it. Take care if you want to use personal data for a new purpose. Keep records and be ready to justify your approach.  The ICO has published more detailed guidance on the seven principles.